Investments in infrastructure are crucial to achieving sustainable development. To reduce inequalities, policies should be universal in principle, paying attention to the needs of disadvantaged and marginalized populations. There needs to be a future in which cities provide opportunities for all, with access to basic services, energy, housing, transportation and more.
Part I - Perspectives
Climate change is a global challenge that affects everyone, everywhere. Careful management of this essential global resource is a key feature of a sustainable future. Sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, halt biodiversity loss. Access to justice for all, and building effective, accountable institutions at all levels.
Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
Revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. About the Sustainable Development Goals. About the Sustainable Development Goals dpicampaigns T The Sustainable Development Goals are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. Goal 1: No Poverty Economic growth must be inclusive to provide sustainable jobs and promote equality. Read more about Goal 1. Goal 2: Zero Hunger The food and agriculture sector offers key solutions for development, and is central for hunger and poverty eradication.
Read more about Goal 2. Goal 3: Good Health and Well-Being Ensuring healthy lives and promoting the well-being for all at all ages is essential to sustainable development. Read more about Goal 3. Read more about Goal 4. Goal 5: Gender Equality Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world. Read more about Goal 5. Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation Clean, accessible water for all is an essential part of the world we want to live in.
Read more about Goal 6. Goal 7: Affordable and Clean Energy Energy is central to nearly every major challenge and opportunity. Read more about Goal 7. Such a notion of pathways foregrounds decision-making processes at local to national levels to situate transformation, resilience, equity and well-being in the complex reality of specific places, nations and communities Harris et al.
This entails contestation, inclusive governance and iterative engagement of diverse populations with varied needs, aspirations, agency and rights claims, including those most affected, to deliberate trade-offs in a multiplicity of possible pathways high confidence see Figure 5. Most literature related to CRDPs invokes the concept of transformation, underscoring the need for urgent and far-reaching changes in practices, institutions and social relations in society.
Transformations towards a 1. To attain the anticipated transformations , all countries as well as non-state actors would need to strengthen their contributions, through bolder and more committed cooperation and equitable effort-sharing medium evidence, high agreement Rao, ; Frumhoff et al. Sustaining decarbonization rates at a 1.
Such efforts would entail overcoming technical, infrastructural, institutional and behavioural barriers across all sectors and levels of society Pfeiffer et al. Transformation also entails ensuring that 1. There is growing emphasis on the role of equity, fairness and justice see Glossary regarding context-specific transformations and pathways to a 1. Consideration for what is equitable and fair suggests the need for stringent decarbonization and up-scaled adaptation that do not exacerbate social injustices, locally and at national levels Okereke and Coventry, , uphold human rights Robinson and Shine, , are socially desirable and acceptable von Stechow et al.
Attention is often drawn to huge disparities in the cost, benefits, opportunities and challenges involved in transformation within and between countries, and the fact that the suffering of already poor, vulnerable and disadvantaged populations may be worsened, if care to protect them is not taken Holden et al. Well-being for all Dearing et al. The social conditions to enable well-being for all are to reduce entrenched inequalities within and between countries Klinsky and Winkler, ; rethink prevailing values, ethics and behaviours Holden et al.
The potential for pursuing sustainable and climate-resilient development pathways towards a 1. There are clear differences between high-income countries where social achievements are high, albeit often with negative effects on the environment, and most developing nations where vulnerabilities to climate change are high and social support and life satisfaction are low, especially in the Least Developed Countries LDCs Sachs et al. Differential starting points for CRDPs between and within countries, including path dependencies Figure 5.
For the developing world, limiting warming to 1. Within-country development differences remain, despite efforts to ensure inclusive societies Gupta and Arts, ; Gupta and Pouw, Cole et al. Moreover, various equity and effort- or burden-sharing approaches to climate stabilization in the literature describe how to sketch national potentials for a 1.
Importantly, different principles and methodologies generate different calculated contributions, responsibilities and capacities Skeie et al. The notion of nation-level fair shares is now also discussed in the context of limiting global warming to 1. A study by Pan et al. Emerging literature on justice-centred pathways to 1. These findings suggest that equitable and 1. Scientific advances since the AR5 now also make it possible to determine contributions to climate change for non-state actors see Chapter 4, Section 4.
These non-state actors includes cities Bulkeley et al. Recent work demonstrates the contributions of 90 industrial carbon producers to global temperature and sea level rise, and their responsibilities to contribute to investments in and support for mitigation and adaptation Heede, ; Ekwurzel et al. At the level of groups and individuals, equity in pursuing climate resilience for a 1.
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Community-driven CRDPs can flag potential negative impacts of national trajectories on disadvantaged groups, such as low-income families and communities of colour Rao, They emphasize social equity, participatory governance, social inclusion and human rights, as well as innovation, experimentation and social learning see Glossary medium evidence, high agreement Sections 5. Literature depicting different sustainable development trajectories in line with CRDPs is growing, with some of it being specific to 1.
Most experiences to date are at local and sub-national levels Cross-Chapter Box 13 in this chapter , while state-level efforts align largely with green economy trajectories or planning for climate resilience Box 5. Due to the fact that these strategies are context-specific, the literature is scarce on comparisons, efforts to scale up and systematic monitoring. States can play an enabling or hindering role in a transition to a 1. The literature on strategies to reconcile low-carbon trajectories with sustainable development and ecological sustainability through green growth, inclusive growth, de-growth, post-growth and development as well-being shows low agreement see Chapter 4, Section 4.
Others still critique the continuous reliance on market mechanisms Wanner, ; Brockington and Ponte, and disregard for equity and distributional and procedural justice Stirling, ; Bell, Country-level pathways and achievements vary significantly robust evidence, medium agreement.
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China and India have adopted technology and renewables pathways Brown et al. Brazil promotes low per capita GHG emissions, clean energy sources, green jobs, renewables and sustainable transportation, while slowing rates of deforestation see Chapter 4, Box 4. Yet concerns remain regarding persistent inequalities, ecosystem monetization, lack of participation in green-style projects Brown et al.
Experiences with low-carbon development pathways in LDCs highlight the crucial role of identifying synergies across scale, removing institutional barriers and ensuring equity and fairness in distributing benefits as part of the right to development Rai and Fisher, In small islands states, for many of which climate change hazards and impacts at 1.
Small islands of the Pacific vary significantly in their capacity and resources to support effective integrated planning McCubbin et al. Vanuatu Box 5. Communities, towns and cities also contribute to low-carbon pathways, sustainable development and fair and equitable climate resilience, often focused on processes of power, learning and contestation as entry points to more localised CRDPs medium evidence, high agreement Cross-Chapter Box 13 in this chapter, Box 5.
In the Scottish Borders Climate Resilient Communities Project United Kingdom , local flood management is linked with national policies to foster cross-scalar and inclusive governance, with attention to systemic disadvantages, shocks and stressors, capacity building, learning for change and climate narratives to inspire hope and action, all of which are essential for community resilience in a 1.
Narratives and storytelling are vital for realizing place-based 1. Engagement with possible futures, identity and self-reliance is also documented for Alaska, where warming has already exceeded 1. The Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network facilitates shared learning dialogues, risk-to-resilience workshops, and iterative, consultative planning in flood-prone cities in India; vulnerable communities, municipal governmental agents, entrepreneurs and technical experts negotiate different visions, trade-offs and local politics to identify desirable pathways Harris et al.
Transforming our societies and systems to limit global warming to 1. Identifying and negotiating socially acceptable, inclusive and equitable pathways towards climate-resilient futures is a challenging, yet important, endeavour, fraught with complex moral, practical and political difficulties and inevitable trade-offs very high confidence.
The ultimate questions are: what futures do we want Bai et al. This chapter has described the fundamental, urgent and systemic transformations that would be needed to achieve sustainable development, eradicate poverty and reduce inequalities in a 1. Here we synthesize some of the most pertinent enabling conditions see Glossary to support these profound transformations.gelatocottage.sg/includes/2020-08-03/2794.php
Decent work and the Agenda for sustainable development (The development agenda)
These conditions are closely interlinked and connected by the overarching concept of governance, which broadly includes institutional, socio-economic, cultural and technological elements see Chapter 1, Cross-Chapter Box 4 in Chapter 1. Significant gaps in green investment constrain transitions to a low-carbon economy aligned with development objectives Volz et al. Hence, unlocking new forms of public, private and public—private financing is essential to support environmental sustainability of the economic system Croce et al.
To avoid risks of undesirable trade-offs with the SDGs caused by national budget constraints, improved access to international climate finance is essential for supporting adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development, especially for LDCs and SIDS medium evidence, high agreement Shine and Campillo, ; Wood, Care needs to be taken when international donors or partnership arrangements influence project financing structures Kongsager and Corbera, ; Purdon, ; Phillips et al.
The development and transfer of technologies is another enabler for developing countries to contribute to the requirements of the 1. International-level governance would be needed to boost domestic innovation and the deployment of new technologies, such as negative emission technologies, towards the 1. Technology transfer supporting development in developing countries would require an understanding of local and national actors and institutions de Coninck and Puig, ; de Coninck and Sagar, ; Michaelowa et al.
Multilevel governance in climate change has emerged as a key enabler for systemic transformation and effective governance see Chapter 4, Section 4. On the one hand, low-carbon and climate-resilient development actions are often well aligned at the lowest scale possible Suckall et al.